Monohybrid Cross Definition Biology

Discover the world of genetics through monohybrid crosses, a fundamental concept in biology. Explore examples, applications, and case studies to understand inheritance patterns.

What is a Monohybrid Cross?

A monohybrid cross is a genetic experiment that involves the mating of individuals that differ in only one trait. It is a fundamental concept in biology that helps understand the principles of inheritance.

How Does a Monohybrid Cross Work?

In a monohybrid cross, two individuals that are heterozygous for a single trait are crossed. For example, if we cross two pea plants that are both heterozygous for flower color (one has the genotype Rr and the other has the genotype Rr), we can predict the outcomes of their offspring.

Understanding Monohybrid Cross with an Example

Let’s take the example of Mendel’s peas. When Mendel crossed a yellow-seeded pea plant (YY) with a green-seeded pea plant (yy), he observed that all the offspring had yellow seeds. This is because the yellow allele (Y) is dominant over the green allele (y).

Importance of Monohybrid Cross

  • Helps in understanding the principles of genetics
  • Provides insights into inheritance patterns
  • Allows the prediction of offspring genotypes and phenotypes

Real-Life Applications

Monohybrid crosses have practical applications in agriculture, animal breeding, and medical research. By understanding the genetic principles behind monohybrid crosses, scientists can develop new varieties of crops, breed animals with desired traits, and study genetic diseases.

Case Study: Monohybrid Cross in Humans

One of the classic examples of a monohybrid cross in humans is the inheritance of widows’ peak, a genetically determined hairline pattern. If both parents have a widows’ peak, there is a 75% chance that their offspring will also have a widows’ peak.


Monohybrid crosses are a valuable tool in genetics that help in understanding the inheritance of single traits. By studying monohybrid crosses, scientists can unravel the complexities of genetic inheritance and make significant contributions to various fields.

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