## Understanding Prime Numbers

Prime numbers are whole numbers greater than 1 that have only two factors: 1 and themselves. These numbers are unique and play a significant role in mathematics and computing. They cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller whole numbers together.

## Examples of Prime Numbers

- 2 is the smallest prime number
- 3, 5, 7, 11 are prime numbers
- 13, 17, 19, 23 are also prime numbers

## Case Studies on Prime Numbers

Prime numbers are used in cryptography for secure communication. For instance, RSA encryption relies on prime numbers to create secure keys for transmitting sensitive information.

## Statistics on Prime Numbers

There are infinitely many prime numbers, a fact proven by the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid. However, the distribution of prime numbers becomes less frequent as numbers get larger, leading to complex mathematical theories like the Prime Number Theorem.