Civil Case Definition

Learn about civil cases, legal disputes resolved in civil courts between private individuals or organizations seeking money damages or specific performance. Explore types, examples, and statistics.

What is a Civil Case?

A civil case is a legal dispute between two or more parties that seek money damages or specific performance, rather than criminal sanctions. It typically involves private individuals or organizations as opposed to the government. Civil cases are heard in civil courts and are subject to different rules and standards than criminal cases.

Types of Civil Cases

There are several types of civil cases, including:

  • Contract disputes
  • Personal injury claims
  • Property disputes
  • Employment discrimination lawsuits
  • Family law matters such as divorce and child custody

Example of a Civil Case

One example of a civil case is a homeowner suing a contractor for breach of contract. If the contractor failed to complete the work as specified in the contract, the homeowner can sue for damages to cover the cost of hiring a new contractor to finish the job.

Importance of Civil Cases

Civil cases play a crucial role in resolving disputes between individuals and organizations. They help uphold contractual obligations, protect individuals’ rights, and provide a means for seeking redress for harm suffered.

Civil Case Statistics

According to the U.S. Courts, civil cases accounted for 115,854 filings in federal district courts in 2020. The most common types of civil cases include personal injury, breach of contract, and employment discrimination.

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