What Do You Mean By Homologous Chromosomes

Learn about homologous chromosomes, pairs of chromosomes with the same genes but potentially different alleles. Discover their role in genetic inheritance and genetic diversity.


Homologous chromosomes are a pair of chromosomes that have the same genes at the same loci, but potentially different alleles. They are essential for genetic inheritance and play a crucial role in genetic diversity.

Structure of Homologous Chromosomes

Homologous chromosomes are similar in size, shape, and genetic content. They are inherited from each parent, with one homologous chromosome coming from the mother and the other from the father.

Role in Genetic Inheritance

During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over. This genetic exchange leads to genetic variation among offspring.


  • In humans, homologous chromosomes pair up during meiosis to ensure the correct distribution of genetic material to offspring.
  • In dogs, homologous chromosomes determine the inheritance of traits such as fur color and size.

Case Studies

A study published in Genetics journal found that individuals with certain genetic disorders have abnormalities in their homologous chromosomes, leading to genetic diseases.


According to a report by the World Health Organization, genetic disorders caused by abnormalities in homologous chromosomes affect approximately 7.9 million births worldwide each year.

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