## Introduction

Gravitational constant, denoted by the symbol G, is a fundamental constant in physics that plays a crucial role in the law of universal gravitation. In this article, we will delve into what gravitational constant is and state its SI unit.

## What is Gravitational Constant?

The gravitational constant, G, is a physical constant that determines the strength of the gravitational force between two objects with mass. It is an important component of Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation, which states that every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

## SI Unit of Gravitational Constant

The SI unit of gravitational constant is expressed in units of m^{3} kg^{-1} s^{-2}. This means that the unit of gravitational constant is cubic meters per kilogram per second squared, which is a measure of the force of gravity between two objects with mass.

## Examples of Gravitational Constant

One of the most famous examples of the gravitational constant in action is the force of gravity between the Earth and an object on its surface. The gravitational constant determines the strength of this force, which is what keeps us anchored to the ground. Without the gravitational constant, we would float off into space!

Another example of the gravitational constant in play is the orbit of planets around the sun. The gravitational constant dictates the force of gravity between the sun and each planet, maintaining their respective orbits and preventing them from flying off into space.

## Case Study: Measuring Gravitational Constant

In 1798, Henry Cavendish conducted an experiment to measure the gravitational constant. Using a sensitive torsion balance, Cavendish was able to calculate the value of G with remarkable accuracy, paving the way for future scientific discoveries in the field of physics.

## Statistics on Gravitational Constant

- Value of Gravitational Constant: 6.67430 x 10
^{-11}m^{3}kg^{-1}s^{-2} - Importance: Crucial for understanding the force of gravity in the universe
- Applications: Astronomy, astrophysics, space exploration