If anti-vitalism is true, life does not suddenly appear where it was not present before.
That a chemical produced by natural organisms could be derived so easily in a flask threatened to overturn the entire conception of living organisms: for centuries, the chemistry of living organisms was thought to be imbued with some mystical property, a vital essence that could not be duplicated in a laboratory—a theory called vitalism.
His fideist Weltanschauung also extends to other areas, e.g., he maintains that physics cannot be capable of explaining human consciousness, which is a mystical position known as vitalism: in effect that human-level sapience amounts to some type of soul that is beyond the study and description of science.
The first and most traditional argument is the idea of vitalism or dualism.
It used to be called "vitalism" by philosophers, and is contemptuously dismissed under that name nowadays by the few scientists educated enough to be aware of it.
The atman concept originally conected to a kind of vitalism and supernaturalism that theories like Darwinian evolution have undermined.
Shtulman doesn't use the term 'vitalism' but transformationism as he characterizes it involves the following characteristics: 1. Variation: Individual differences are nonadaptive or maladaptive deviations from type.
The new 'vitalism' unfolds a living self-evolving universe, a restless, unfinished and never-to-be-finished development -- the scope and goal of which cannot be foreseen or explained.
Thus while the study of the behavior of life or the doctrine of "vitalism" might encourage us to think that in the cells and in the behavior of protoplasm we are witnessing the direct action of an intelligent Creator; yet we find that by the correlation of forces we must _say the same about all the physical and chemical phenomena of nature_.
Because biologists and their co-scientists can explain emergent properties/phenomena, if only sometimes in principle, by mechanisms that do not transcend interactions of matter and energy, any such 'vitalism' properly qualifies only as a 'materialistic vitalism'.