Its surface was mottled with great ugly spots, leprous with the scaly markings called faculae and granulations.
It is also marked here and there by long streaks of light, called faculae, which look like foam flecks below a cataract.
Because there are brighter or more luminous parts of the sun's disk, called faculae by Scheiner and Hevelius, which would seem to be volcanos in the sun, or, as Dr. Wilson calls them, "eructations of matter more luminous than that which covers the sun's surface."
Although at solar maxima there are more sunspots on the Sun's surface, their dimming effect is more than offset by the appearance of bright patches on the Sun's disc called faculae - Italian for "little torches".
Although at solar maxima there are more sunspots on the Sun's surface, their dimming effect is more than offset by the appearance of bright patches on the Sun's disc called faculae -- Italian for "little torches '.
The heavy line is the measured irradiance, the spikes up and down are the passage of faculae or sunspot groups across the solar disk.
Wang et al. 2005 is based on solar considerations alone, using a flux transport model to simulate the long-term evolution of the closed flux that generates bright faculae.
Clearly the faculae on the sun are very small compared with sunspots and any attempt to numerically model the sun in its entirety is unlikely to be successful.
The sun is a very complicated object and although observations of faculae, sunspots, differential solar rotation, helmet streamers, coronal mass ejections, solar cycles, etc. have been made for many years, it is extremely difficult for us to understand these features because we do not have sufficient information e.g. local lateral boundary conditions to analytically describe or numerically model the individual objects such as a sunspot.
My polar faculae observations show -so far- also about 40% less PF than observed 10 years ago, and they are less bright.