A treeless alpine plateau of this Andes and exotic South America.
a treeless grassland ecosystem covering considerable high aspects of equatorial mountains, particularly in south usa
A high, bleak plateau or region, with stunted trees, and cold, moist environment, such as the Andes, in South America.
A desert plain, bare of trees, at a higher height, available to the winds, and uncultivated and uninhabited.
According to Schimper (“Plant-Geog.” (trans.), p. 743), the paramos, lying-in the alpine area of equatorial Cordilleras in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, tend to be essentially steppes, and are also distinguished in personality from punas by their particular moisture. They start during the limitation of dwarf forest and shrub timber, are either treeless or keep isolated gnarled individuals, and tend to be covered with a vegetation of lawn and low herbs, with a peculiar taller development of composite plants, known as frailejon (which see). Compare puna.
A theory or system of social reform which contemplates a complete reconstruction of society with a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor In popular usage the term is often employed to indicate any lawless revolutionary social scheme See Communism Fourierism Saint Simonianism forms of socialism...