meteorite definition

  • noun:
    • A stony or metallic mass of matter that features fallen towards the earth's area from space.
    • A metallic or stony item or human anatomy that's the stays of a meteor
    • Scores Of stone or metal which includes fallen towards planet from room; an aërolite.
    • A mineral or metallic mass of extraterrestrial source, or which, to utilize the typical phrase, has actually “fallen from the heavens.”
    • the truly amazing interest in meteorites in recent years has actually led not only to a minuter research of understood meteorites, but also to a keener look for brand-new specimens and a closer watch out for falls. The result of this activity is shown in really considerable escalation in the number of known meteorites from well-authenticated independent resources. The choices of Vienna and London contain each between 550 and 600 specimens and the Ward-Coonley collection (today in Now York) has actually more than 600. Of recent discoveries of meteoric iron, the Willamette specimen, within Clackamas county, Oregon, in 1902, is remarkable for the great dimensions (becoming one of several four largest public proven to occur: see below), and also for assorted structural functions. Its measurements tend to be 10¼ × 7 × 4 legs, and its estimated weight about 15½ tons. The shape (see slice) is around conical, as well as the cone-shaped section, lying beneath whenever discovered, was obviously leading part (brustseite) in the forward movement of the size. An extraordinary feature of the metal is the large, basin-like cavities regarding top exposed area, possibly the consequence of terrestrial decomposition during the any period of time which includes elapsed since its fall. Near Cañon Diablo, Arizona, really restricted area, more than 600 public of meteoric metal happen found since 1891. They vary from about 1,200 weight to half an ounce and less in weight and their incident is straight away involving an extraordinary crater (¾ of a mile wide, 500 legs deep), that will be thought to owe its beginning into effect of this meteoric mass. This metal is noteworthy as it has been shown by numerous investigators, specially by Moissan of Paris, to consist of minute clear octahedrons of diamond. It has also yielded green hexagonal crystals of carbon silicide (moissanite), identical because of the synthetic compound found in the arts as an abrasive in title of carborundum. The mass of meteoric metal, the ‘Ahnighito meteorite,’ delivered to nyc by Lieutenant Peary from, Cape York, Greenland, in 1897 (known since 1818), is undoubtedly the biggest meteorite preserved in any museum and maybe the biggest mass recognized to occur. It steps 11 × 7½ × 5½ foot and weighs in at 36½ tons; its type is shown in cut. A somewhat higher weight (estimated as 46 tons) is provided when it comes to iron of Bacubirito, Sinaloa, Mexico (known since 1871), while that of Chupadero, Chihuahua, Mexico (1852), weighs about 16 tons. The meteoric source associated with the Ahnighito iron is more developed, even though the iron of Disko Island and those of some other localities on west coast of Greenland tend to be truly terrestrial. The truly amazing mass of Santa Catharina, Brazil, remarkable for its high level percentage of nickel (34 per cent.), is currently usually considered terrestrial; this kind is named catarinite by Meunier. Some question has also already been cast upon the meteoric beginning associated with the metal from Oktibbeha county, Mississippi, which contains 60 %. of nickel (oktibbehite kind, Meunier). The meteorites that have been seen to fall between 1890 and 1906 number about 30. Included in these are three irons, those of Quesa, Spain (1898), of Bugaldi, brand new Southern Wales (1900), as well as Ngoureyma, in Northwest Africa (1900); the latter-named size weighed 37½ kilograms, and its remarkable look is shown in adjoining cut. The moment microscopic and chemical examination of meteoric irons has generated even more definite familiarity with the composition of the numerous iron-nickel alloys, kamacite, tænite, and plessite creating the triad (or trias) of Reichenbach (see Widmannstättian numbers, under Widmannstättian); of the, kamacite contains from 4.8 to 7.4 percent. of nickel, tænite from 16.7 to 38.1 per cent., and plessite is certainly a eutectic mixture of the 2 types. Reichenbach's lamprite (glanzeisen) has been shown, however, becoming maybe not nickel-iron, in part metal carbide (including cohenite (Fe, Ni)3C), and in component schreibersite. The edmondsonite of Flight (meteorin of Abel) is just tænite. The wickelkamacite of Brezina (hülleisen of Reichenbach) is kamacite, maybe not in regular form as always, but of irregular overview inclosing accessory constituents, sulphids, graphite, silicates, etc. The metal sulphid of meteoric irons is currently conceded to be troilite (FeS), perhaps not pyrrhotine (Fe7S8). The list of chemical elements identified in meteorites happens to be increased because of the after, several of them detected in traces only and some perhaps requiring verification: gold, gold, platinum, iridium, palladium, lead, gallium, selenium; the stone of Saline township, Kansas, contains no-cost phosphorus. The identification of leucite, a mineral of instead unusual event in terrestrial igneous stones, as an essential constituent of the meteoric rock of Schafstädt is an interesting point; it's most likely additionally contained in the Pavlovka rock (1882). The category of meteorites today generally adopted is essentially that Gustav Rose (Berlin, 1863) as extended and elaborated by later on authors, especially A. Brezina of Vienna. The basic unit is that between the meteoric irons, or siderites, consisting really of metallic iron (probably throughout situations nickel-iron), while the meteoric rocks, or aërolites, where silicates predominate, the metallic nickel-iron sometimes (though seldom) totally missing. As a transition-group between your irons and rocks belong those meteorites where the metal types a continuing, sponge-like size inclosing silicates (chiefly olivin and bronzite); they are usually embraced under the basic name of siderolites, and often (as below, Brezina) divided into siderolites and lithosiderites, in accordance due to the fact metal, on a cross-section, seems as individual grains or types a continuous web. The device of Brezina (catalogue of this Ward-Coonley collection, 1904) acknowledges further here prominent divisions: I. Stones: achondrites, chondri generally missing, metallic iron absent or just sparingly present; chondrites, chondri prominent, bronzite, olivin, and metal essential; chondrites, with enstatite, anorthite, and iron crucial; siderolites, iron inclosing silicates, iron in separate grains in area. II. Irons: tithosiderites, metal and silicates, the metal continuous in area; octahedrites, irons with octahedral construction as shown in Widmannstättian numbers; hexahedrites, irons with cubic structure and cleavage; ataxites, construction interrupted or indistinct. These divisions tend to be additional separated into groups or types quickly characterized as follows: Achondrites: chladnite (abbreviated Chl), consisting chiefly of bronzite (known as, such as the mineral chladnite (= enstatite), after the physicist Chladni (1756–1827), just who penned about meteors); chladnite with bronzite, black or metallic veined (Chla); angrite (A), chiefly augite (known as after the meteorite of Angra dos Reys, Brazil; date of autumn, 1869); chassignite (Cha), mainly olivin (Chassigny, France, 1815); bustite (Bu), bronzite and augite (Busti, India, 1852); amphoterite (in the morning), bronzite and olivin (called by Tschermak); rodite (Ro), bronzite and olivin, brecciated or breccia-like (La Roda, Spain, 1871); eucrite (Eu), augite with anorthite (known as by Rose in 1863; also employed for a terrestrial rock: see eucrite); shergottite (She), augite with maskelynite (Sherghotty, India, 1865); (10) howardite (Ho), bronzite, olivin, augite, and anorthite (named by Rose after Edward Howard, whom first determined the real nature of meteoric metal: Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc, 1802); (11) howardite, brecciated (Hob); (12) leucituranolite (L), leucite, anorthite, augite, and glass (named by C. Klein, 1904). Chondrites: howarditic chondrite (Cho); the exact same, veined (Choa); chondrite, white and friable (Cw); exactly the same, veined (Cwa); exactly the same, brecciated (Cwb); advanced chondrite (Ci), firm, with white and gray chondri; equivalent, veined (Cia); the exact same, brecciated (Cib); grey chondrite (Cg), fast gray size with chondri; (10) exactly the same, veined (Cga); (11) equivalent, brecciated (Cgb); (12) orvinite (Co), black, infiltrated mass, discontinuous crust (Orvinio, Italy, 1872); (13) tadjerite (Ct), black, semiglassy, without crust (Tadjéra, Africa, 1867); (14) black chondrite (Cs), dark or black colored size; chondri of numerous colors; (15) the exact same, veined(Csa); (16) ureilite (U), black mass, chondritic or granular, metal in veins, etc. (Novo Urei, Russia, 1886); (17) carbonaceous chondrite (K), dull-black friable chondri with no-cost carbon and little or no metal; (18) the same, spherulitic (Kc); (19) similar, spherulitic, veined (Kca); (20) spherulitic chondrite (Cc), mass friable, chondri perhaps not breaking with matrix; (21) the same, veined (Cca); (22) similar, brecciated (Ccb); (23) ornansite (Cco), friable size of chondri (Ornans, France, 1868); (24) ngawite (Ccn), friable, brecciated size of chondri (Ngawi, Java, 1883); (25) spherulitic chondrite, crystalline (Cck); (26) equivalent, veined (Ccka): (27) the exact same, brecciated (Cckb); (28) crystalline chondrite (Ck); (29) equivalent, veined (Cka); (30) equivalent, brecciated (Ckb). Enstatite-anorthite chondrites: crystalline chondrite (Cck), enstatite, anorthite, and iron with circular chondri. Siderolites: mesosiderite. (M), sponge-like mass of metal inclosing crystalline olivin and bronzite (title written by G. Rose, 1862: see mesosiderite); grahamite (Mg), equivalent, with additionally plagioclase (J. Lorimer Graham of brand new York town); lodhranite (Lo), granular crystalline olivin and bronzite in metal (Lodhran, Asia, 1868) Lithosiderites: siderophyre (S), bronzite grains with accessory asmanite in iron (called by Tschermak); – sets of pallasites, metal inclosing olivin (Pk), (Pr), (Pi), (Pa), varying chiefly concerning the olivin (named from Pallas metal, Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, 1749). Octahedrites: groups –, good octahedrites (Off), (Ofv), (Of), showing thin lamellæ of differing kinds, widths 0.3–0.4 millimeters; medium octahedrite (Om), lamellæ 0.5–0.10 millimeters; wide octahedrite (Og), lamellæ 1.5–2.0 millimeters; broadest octahedrite (Ogg); –(11) brecciated octahedrites, good, medium, etc., numerous kinds (Obk), (Obn), (Obz), (Obzg), (Obc); (12) octahedrite, Hammond team (Oh), Hexahedrites: regular, perhaps not granular (H); granular (Ha); brecciated (Hb). Ataxites: teams (respectively designated as Dc, Dsh, Db, Dl, Dn, Ds, Dp, and Dm), differing mainly in a choice of amount of nickel or perhaps in framework; the Siratic group (Ds, and known as from a location in Senegal) is poor in nickel, but includes rhabdite. Daubrée divided all meteorites into four grand divisions, in accordance with the quantity of metal present, particularly: holosiderites, containing no silicates; syssiderites, an iron size inclosing silicates; sporadosiderites, rocks with disseminated grains of metal; asiderites, rocks containing no metallic iron. He further divided the sporadosiderites into polysiderites, iron abundant; oligosiderites, metal less plentiful; and cryptosiderites, metal not visible to a person's eye. This category ended up being more developed by Meunier, just who recognized fifty-three teams, called more often than not after some typical meteorite; these begin with the highly nickeliferous irons oktibbehite and catarinite (see above), additionally tazewellite, nelsonite, braunite, etc., and end with orgueilite and bokkewellite.
    • stony or metallic object that is the keeps of a meteoroid that features achieved the earth's area

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