the nature genus of a subfamily Carduelinae of Fringillidae, found in some classifications. It offers the goldfinches (including the American goldfinch, Cardulis tristis, plus the European goldfinch, Carduelis carduelis); siskins; redpolls; and linnets, plus the typical north cardinal (Carduelis cardinalis, also called the cardinal bird).
A genus of oscine passerine birds, of the family Fringiuidæ, having as type Fringilla carduelis, the European goldfinch, now usually called Carduelis elegans.
in a few classifications considered the nature genus of a subfamily Carduelinae of family Fringillidae: goldfinches; siskins; redpolls; linnets
A theory or system of social reform which contemplates a complete reconstruction of society with a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor In popular usage the term is often employed to indicate any lawless revolutionary social scheme See Communism Fourierism Saint Simonianism forms of socialism...