calorimeter definition

  • noun:
    • An apparatus for calculating heat generated by a chemical effect, change of state, or formation of an answer.
    • The section of this device, usually a container for holding a sample, where heat assessed triggers a big change of condition.
    • An apparatus for calculating the warmth generated or absorbed by either a chemical reaction, modification of phase or other real change.
    • An apparatus for calculating the total amount of temperature found in figures or developed by some mechanical or chemical process, as rubbing, substance combination, burning, etc. For combustion procedures, a bomb calorimeter can be utilized.
    • An apparatus for measuring the proportion of unevaporated water contained in steam.
    • An apparatus for measuring heat created by a chemical reaction, change of state, or development of a remedy.
    • An apparatus for calculating the amount of heat given down by a body under various circumstances: used in deciding the particular temperature various substances, the latent temperature of fusion, expansion, or vaporization, while the heat of burning, or of substance combo in general.
    • The element of this apparatus, often a container for keeping a sample, where the heat assessed causes a change of state.
    • The calorimeter is employed to determine, in thermal units, the heat liberated or consumed in the course of any physical or chemical process, eg modification of temperature, modification of condition, the solution of a great in a liquid, the blend of fluids, chemical action, or any technical, electric or magnetic process involving changes of energy. The thermal device almost universally utilized may be the calory, which, the actual quantity of heat necessary to boost one gram, or sometimes one kilogram, of water from 0° C. to 1° C.; but other thermal quantities, the relation which into calory is unquestionably understood (including the temperature of fusion of ice, or the heat of vaporization of liquid), are now and again utilized. For determination of certain temperature the calorimeter commonly comprises of a metal vessel, the water-equivalent of which is famous, containing a known amount of water of known heat. The material the specific temperature which is to be determined is considered, heated for some very carefully assessed higher temperature, and plunged into the water, while the change in the temperature associated with latter is seen. The absolute most really serious mistake in this operation is that as a result of the exchange of heat involving the calorimeter and its own environment, and various products were utilized to reduce this mistake to at least. For this purpose the calorimeter (C) can be suspended within an outer chamber (o, o) by non-conducting aids as shown in Fig. 1. The outer surface of calorimeter as well as the internal area for the containing-vessel, each of which are material, tend to be highly refined to diminish radiation. Inside Waterman calorimeter the compound is tested is heated in a vessel surrounded by a coil of line by which an electrical present flows. It's after that put in a cup (C, Fig. 2) with double wall space, which serves as the light bulb of an air-thermometer. Ice-cold water is included in amount just enough to counterbalance the rise of temperature. The mercury column within the manometer pipe suggests the heat of this glass. Way more perfect separation could be acquired using as a calorimeter a Dewar flask. This is made from a glass vessel (Fig. 3) with two fold walls, from the space between that your environment was carefully eliminated. The external area of inner flask therefore the inside for the external one are silvered. The change of temperature under these circumstances is extremely sluggish, and such flasks form exemplary calorimeters. The determination of specific warms in the shape of the fusion of ice was suggested by Black, into the eighteenth century, whom useful for this purpose a block of obvious ice (Fig. 4). The material the particular temperature that is desired is heated and then put into a cavity (C) inside the block. A slab of ice (S) serves as a cover. The Quantity Of water melted because of the inclosed body in cooling to 0°C. measures the precise heat. Lavoisier and Laplace substituted for Black's ice-block a calorimeter composed of an inner cage containing the body become tested, enclosed by a double-walled vessel packed with broken ice within melting-point. The ice melted because of the temperature liberated from air conditioning body ended up being gathered and considered. In Bunsen's ice-calorimeter the amount of ice melted depends upon the alteration in amount which that compound goes through whenever became the liquid type. The apparatus, which will be shown in Fig. 5, consist of an inner tube of glass sealed into a larger vessel of the identical material , the throat that is bent upward and leads to a horizontal capillary pipe . Top of the part of the outer vessel surrounding the tube a is filled with liquid, below which will be mercury expanding constantly through the throat in to the capillary pipe. Through a freezing-mixture in a, a mantle of ice is made round the outside of the inner tube, thereafter the freezing-mixture is taken away and entire equipment is packed in melting ice. If now a body the precise temperature that is to be determined is introduced into a, some associated with ice-mantle may be melted, and, in result of the diminution of volume, the mercury column inside capillary pipe will go away toward the neck for the calorimeter. Its action affords a measure for the level of ice melted, and so associated with the temperature liberated by the cooling body. The Bunsen ice-calorimeter is a musical instrument of great delicacy and is specifically adapted when it comes to dimension of tiny degrees of temperature. Unfortunately, the thickness of ice depends somewhat upon the rapidity with which its created, and considerable errors tend to be hence introduced. The heat of vaporization of liquid was used by Joly among others for calorimetric purposes. The July steam-calorimeter depends upon the determination of number of dampness condensed upon the outer lining of a substance once the latter is plunged into an environment of vapor. This apparatus is comprised of a steam-chamber with thin steel wall space, within which, suspended from an arm of a balance, hangs a little platinum scale-pan of conical kind. A known body weight associated with substance the specific temperature that is usually to be determined is put regarding the pan, and its particular heat is mentioned. Steam will be introduced in to the chamber, and condensation happens on the surface for the cool human body, contributing to its weight. Once the compound features gained the heat associated with the vapor, and condensation is total, the rise of fat is determined. For the dedication associated with certain temperature of liquids and gases, numerous types of calorimeter have actually teen devised. One of these brilliant, the continuous-flaw calorimeter of Callendar and Barnes, which has been used in the dedication regarding the specific heat of liquid at various conditions, is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 6. It consists essentially of a capillary pipe (AB) linking at stops with bigger tubes and sealed into a glass vacuum-jacket. The liquid the particular temperature that is to be determined comes into the tube at i and flows out at o at a measured price. In the form of a fine wire stretched through bore of capillary tube and supplied with a known electric current, temperature is imparted towards the fluid. The temperatures of this inflowing liquid at A and of this outflowing liquid at B tend to be based on means of the weight of coils of platinum wire placed within the bigger tubes. From number of fluid passing in certain some time the actual quantity of heat sent to it electrically from the heating-wire, together with the huge difference of temperature at finishes of tube, the precise heat regarding the fluid could be determined with great precision. For dedication of warms of burning, heats of option, along with other thermochemical procedures, numerous unique types of calorimeter are developed. Among they are the Favre and Silberman calorimeter, when the heat of a chemical effect is imparted to mercury contained in a bulb with a capillary throat, and also the development regarding the liquid is mentioned; the Junker calorimeter and bomb calorimeters of Berthelot and Stohmann, when it comes to research of heats of burning; additionally the respiration calorimeter, for the dedication associated with temperature evolved by animals or by individual subjects. Other forms, labeled as electrocalorimeters, are used for calculating the warmth produced by the electric energy.
    • An apparatus for calculating the heat generated or consumed by either a chemical reaction, change of period or some other actual change.
    • a type of bomb calorimeter for dedication associated with temperature of combustion. See calorimeter.
    • An apparatus for measuring the amount of heat found in figures or produced by some mechanical or chemical process, as friction, substance combo, combustion, etc. For burning procedures, a-bomb calorimeter works extremely well.
    • The essential top features of the calorimeter are the following: a metal chamber, furnished with a chair, dining table, and bed, when the subject of this test (usually a person) lives, eats, products, rests, and sometimes works, during a period of a few times and nights.
    • An apparatus for calculating the percentage of unevaporated water within steam.
    • plans for ventilating the chamber as well as examining and measuring the atmosphere supplied to and got from chamber.
    • An apparatus for calculating the quantity of heat provided off by a body under different circumstances: used in deciding the particular temperature various substances, the latent heat of fusion, expansion, or vaporization, plus the heat of combustion, or of substance combination as a whole.
    • Facilities for moving drink and food to the chamber and for removing excreta. These products are weighed and examined by test, and their heat of burning determined.
    • The calorimeter is used to determine, in thermal units, the warmth liberated or soaked up during any actual or chemical procedure, eg change of temperature, change of state, the perfect solution is of an excellent in a liquid, the blend of fluids, chemical action, or any technical, electric or magnetized procedure concerning changes of power. The thermal device practically universally used could be the calory, that's, the total amount of heat needed to boost one gram, or occasionally one kilogram, of water from 0° C. to 1° C.; but other thermal volumes, the relation which towards calory is certainly understood (for instance the temperature of fusion of ice, or the heat of vaporization of water), are now and again used. The determination of particular temperature the calorimeter generally includes a metal vessel, the water-equivalent which is famous, containing a known volume of liquid of known heat. The substance the specific temperature that is usually to be determined is considered, heated to some very carefully calculated greater temperature, and plunged to the water, and also the change in the heat of the latter is observed. Probably the most really serious mistake in this operation usually arising from the trade of temperature amongst the calorimeter and its own environments, and numerous devices are utilized to lessen this error to at least. For this function the calorimeter (C) is sometimes suspended within an outer chamber (o, o) by non-conducting aids as shown in Fig. 1. The exterior surface associated with calorimeter while the inner surface of this containing-vessel, each of that are material, are very refined in order to minimize radiation. When you look at the Waterman calorimeter the compound to be tested is heated in a vessel enclosed by a coil of line whereby a power present flows. It really is then positioned in a cup (C, Fig. 2) with two fold wall space, which functions as the light bulb of an air-thermometer. Ice-cold liquid is added in quantity simply enough to counterbalance the increase of temperature. The mercury line inside manometer pipe shows the temperature of the cup. A great deal more perfect separation could be obtained simply by using as a calorimeter a Dewar flask. This is composed of a glass vessel (Fig. 3) with dual wall space, from space between that your atmosphere was carefully removed. The external surface regarding the inner flask and the inside regarding the external one are silvered. The exchange of heat under these problems is exceedingly sluggish, and such flasks form excellent calorimeters. The dedication of particular warms by means of the fusion of ice was recommended by Ebony, in eighteenth century, which useful for this purpose a block of obvious ice (Fig. 4). The substance the particular heat of which is desired is heated and then put into a cavity (C) inside the block. A slab of ice (S) functions as a cover. The Total Amount Of water melted because of the inclosed body in air conditioning to 0°C. measures the precise heat. Lavoisier and Laplace substituted for Ebony's ice-block a calorimeter consisting of an inner cage containing the body becoming tested, enclosed by a double-walled vessel filled with broken ice in the melting-point. The ice melted because of the temperature liberated from the air conditioning human anatomy ended up being collected and weighed. In Bunsen's ice-calorimeter the total amount of ice melted is dependent upon the change in volume which that compound goes through whenever changed into the fluid kind. The equipment, which can be shown in Fig. 5, is made of an inner pipe of glass sealed into a bigger vessel of the same compound , the throat that is curved upward and leads to a horizontal capillary pipe . The upper part of the external vessel surrounding the pipe a is filled up with water, below which is mercury extending constantly through the neck to the capillary tube. In the form of a freezing-mixture in a, a mantle of ice is formed across the not in the internal tube, and after that the freezing-mixture is removed plus the entire equipment is packed in melting ice. If today a body the specific heat of which is to be determined is introduced into a, some associated with the ice-mantle will be melted, and, in consequence of the diminution of volume, the mercury column within the capillary tube will go away toward the throat associated with the calorimeter. Its motion affords a measure of the amount of ice melted, and therefore regarding the heat liberated because of the air conditioning body. The Bunsen ice-calorimeter is an instrument of great delicacy and it is specially adjusted when it comes to dimension of very small quantities of heat. Unfortuitously, the density of the ice depends somewhat upon the rapidity with which it really is created, and substantial mistakes tend to be hence introduced. The warmth of vaporization of water has been used by Joly and others for calorimetric purposes. The July steam-calorimeter depends upon the determination regarding the level of moisture condensed upon the outer lining of a substance if the latter is plunged into an environment of vapor. This equipment is composed of a steam-chamber with slim material walls, within which, suspended from an arm of a balance, hangs a little platinum scale-pan of conical form. A known weight associated with the compound the particular heat that is usually to be determined is positioned from the pan, as well as its heat is noted. Steam will be introduced into the chamber, and condensation does occur at first glance of this cool human body, adding to its weight. As soon as the material features gained the temperature of this steam, and condensation is full, the rise of body weight is decided. The dedication of the particular heat of fluids and fumes, numerous kinds of calorimeter have teen developed. One of these, the continuous-flaw calorimeter of Callendar and Barnes, that has been utilized in the determination regarding the particular temperature of liquid at numerous conditions, is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 6. It consists essentially of a capillary tube (AB) linking during the stops with bigger tubes and sealed into a glass vacuum-jacket. The fluid the particular temperature which is to be determined goes into the tube at i and moves aside at o at a measured price. Through an excellent wire stretched through the bore associated with capillary pipe and provided with a known electric energy, heat is imparted on liquid. The conditions of the inflowing fluid at A and associated with the outflowing liquid at B tend to be decided by ways the opposition of coils of platinum line placed in the larger tubes. From amount of fluid moving in certain time and the amount of temperature delivered to it electrically through the heating-wire, together with the distinction of temperature in the finishes associated with the pipe, the particular temperature of the fluid may be determined with great accuracy. When it comes to determination of warms of burning, heats of solution, and other thermochemical processes, many special forms of calorimeter were devised. Among they're the Favre and Silberman calorimeter, where temperature of a chemical effect is imparted to mercury within a bulb with a capillary neck, together with expansion of the liquid is mentioned; the Junker calorimeter additionally the bomb calorimeters of Berthelot and Stohmann, the study of heats of burning; as well as the respiration calorimeter, for the dedication of this heat developed by pets or by human being subjects. Other styles, labeled as electrocalorimeters, are used for calculating the heat manufactured by the electric current.
    • services for measuring the heat given off because of the body and heat-equivalent of every muscular work done. The earnings and outgo of energy of the body are expressed when it comes to temperature, the full total heat of combustion of food consumed becoming compared with the full total heat offered off by the human anatomy. The analyses of food and excreta additionally reveal the digestibility of this food; which, the percentage of vitamins really utilized in your body. The complete device is complicated, and every experiment is laborious and pricey. Findings are taken constantly, night and day, by several observers through the whole amount of the experiment, generally lasting from four to eight times. The outcome obtained have already been for the greatest clinical worth.
    • A form of bomb calorimeter the dedication for the temperature of burning. See calorimeter.
    • a measuring instrument that determines quantities of temperature
    • the fundamental popular features of the calorimeter are the following: a metal chamber, furnished with a chair, table, and bed, when the topic regarding the test (usually a guy) life, eats, drinks, sleeps, and often works, during a period of a number of times and nights.
    • Arrangements for ventilating the chamber as well as for analyzing and measuring the air supplied to and received through the chamber.
    • services for driving refreshments in to the chamber and for the removal of excreta. These materials tend to be considered and examined by test, and their temperature of burning determined.
    • services for measuring the heat offered off by the human body together with heat-equivalent of any muscular work done. The earnings and outgo of power of the human anatomy are expressed regarding heat, the sum total temperature of combustion of meals consumed being weighed against the sum total heat given off because of the human body. The analyses of food and excreta additionally show the digestibility of food; this is certainly, the percentage associated with the nutrients really found in the body. The entire device is difficult, and each test is laborious and expensive. Observations tend to be taken continuously, night and day, by a number of observers during the whole amount of the test, generally enduring from four to eight days. The results obtained are of this highest clinical worth.
    • a measuring instrument that determines quantities of temperature

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