Stupas or topes, huge towers, some integrated the form of a hemisphere, other individuals partly cylindrical and done at the top with either an appartment circle or a pointed dome-like terminal. The topes had been erected honoring some sacred event or spot, as they are often utilized to consist of relics of Buddha or of a saint. When you look at the second situation the tope is known as a dagoba.
Rails, formed of elaborately sculptured pillars, built around topes, temples, as well as other sacred things.
Chaitya halls, cut fully out regarding the lifestyle rock, and corresponding closely in plan with Christian churches. The roles associated with altar or relic-casket, aisles, and apse are frequently the same in both.
Viharas, or monasteries, originally built of purple sandal-wood, in exemplary situations excavated from the solid rock, with halls having their ceilings supported by elaborately sculptured pillars cut from the normal stone, and surrounded by some tiny sleeping-cells. A characteristic of this Buddhist style may be the pseudo-arch, formed by courses of stones each overlapping that below it, till the two sides approach so closely that orifice towards the top could be covered by one rock.