albumin definition

  • noun:
    • a course of easy, water-soluble proteins that can be coagulated by heat and are present in egg-white, bloodstream serum, milk, and several various other pet and plant tissues. Also referred to as albumen.
    • A class of monomeric proteins which are soluble in liquid, and are coagulated by temperature; they take place in egg white, milk an such like; they work as company protein for steroids, fatty acids, and thyroid bodily hormones and play a role in stabilizing extracellular fluid volume.
    • A thick, viscous nitrogenous material, the primary and characteristic constituent of white of eggs as well as the serum of blood, and it is present in other animal substances, both fluid and solid, in addition in lots of plants. Its soluble in liquid and is coagulated by heat and also by specific chemical reagents.
    • In chem., a substance called through the Latin for the white of an egg, where it occurs with its purest normal state (see albumen).
    • The albumins tend to be highly complicated natural systems which enter prominently into the composition of most pet and veggie areas and develop the groundwork, so to speak, of each and every living cell. They are the key food-stuffs of courses of animal life, and certainly will be elaborated because of the chlorophyl-bearing flowers from these types of quick substances as water, carbon dioxid, and particular nitrates or ammonium salts. All albumins have carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur in definite-proportions which vary but bit into the various members of the team: one albumin, which is found in the thyroid, also incorporates iodine. Other elements are not met with in albumins proper, but are encountered in some chemical albumins, for which an albuminous radical is united with other just about complex teams. Therefore hemoglobin includes iron, hemocyanin copper, and also the nucleo-albumins and nucleoproteids phosphorus. All albumins in addition contain adjustable quantities of mineral salts in company combo. Their molecular dimensions are large. For crystallized egg-albumin Hofmeister established the formula C239H386N58S2O78, which corresponds to a molecular body weight of 5,378. The, protamins and histons obviously possess smallest particles, although the element albumins tend to be proportionately heavier: the extra weight of oxyhemoglobin has actually hence been determined as 14,800. The more the albumins are amorphous. A couple of, however, can be acquired in crystalline form, such as for instance egg-albumin, serum-albumin, oxyhemoglobin, and specific vegetable albumins, as edestin, etc. The so-called Bence Jones albumin, which has been fulfilled within the urine in some pathological conditions (numerous myeloma), in addition belongs for this purchase. All real albumins are levorotatory, while specific mixture albumins (the nucleoproteids) turn the jet of polarization to the right. Osborne shows that home, regarding the nucleoproteids, is very likely completely referable to your nucleinic acid complex that they contain. All albumins — due to the great measurements of the molecule, no doubt — are incompetent at diffusing through pet membrane or vegetable parchment. Some members of the team are dissolvable in liquid, other individuals just in dilute saline solution, and still others in dilute acids and alkalis. From their solutions they could be precipitated by mineral acids, the salts associated with the heavy metals, the alleged alkaloidal reagents (as tannic acid, phosphotungstic acid, iodomercuric iodide, etc.), strong alcoholic beverages, and certain basic salts (sodium chlorid, magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate, and notably ammonium sulphate). All albumins further give certain color-reactions, that the biuret reaction (production of a bluish or reddish violet-color on addition of really dilute copper-sulphate option into the existence of an excessive amount of powerful caustic alkali) is particularly characteristic. The real albumins are all coagulated by temperature. Consequently they shed their particular specific characteristics consequently they are then considered denaturized. Next they could be brought into solution just by means which on top of that will produce fundamental changes in their particular structure. From study of the numerous cleavage-products which be a consequence of the albumins on hydrolysis by boiling mineral acids and alkalis, by digestion utilizing the proteolytic ferments, etc., a specific understanding has become possible into the complex structure associated with albuminous molecule. Therefore it seems that various a-amido acids (as leucin, tyrosin, asparaginic acid, glutaminic acid), therefore the diamido acids (ornithin, lysin, etc.), occur into the albuminous complex in the form of Fischer's polypeptides, which may have the overall construction represented because of the formula NH2.(CH2.CO.NH)n.CH2.-COOH. These subsequently tend to be along with other groups, such as the sulphur-containing cystin complex, the glucosamin-group, etc., to make nonetheless more complex radicals, that are additional combined with similar teams to even bigger complexes, which last-in change are once more united with correspondingly large groups to create the whole molecule. Proof the correctness of this supposition is furnished by research of the products of albuminous food digestion. Here we discover among the major items of cleavage three complex figures which separately vary from one another and which in the undamaged molecule had been manifestly in combo. They are the three primary albumoses, termed proto-albumose, heteroalbumose, and glucoalbumose. The first-mentioned on additional decomposition yields diamido acids in small amount, much tyrosin, little leucin, no glyeocol, etc.; while the 2nd includes diamido acids in large amount, much leucin, no tyrosin, together with complete level of glycocol associated with the initial compound. Glucoal-bumose in turn offers the whole carbohydrate-group and a larger portion of air, although the quantity of nitrogen and carbon is significantly less than into the two various other teams. (See additionally items of food digestion.) The albumins maybe split into 5 classes, particularly the indigenous albumins, the nucleo-albumins, the proteids, the albuminoids, therefore the derived albumins. Examples of initial team will be the serum-albumin and serum-globulin of the blood-plasma, the ovalbumin of white of egg, the lactalbumin of milk, and myosin and myogen of muscle-plasma. The same group further comprises the glucoalbumins, which are characterized by the unique predominance of a carbohydrate-group, as well as which the various mucins and mucoids are normal associates; additional, the markedly sulphurous ceratins of your skin and associated substances (hair, horn, etc.); then the histons while the closely associated protamins. These second represent albumins of simplest construction, and so are relatively typical representatives of Fischer's polypeptides. Kossel's salmin thus obviously is made up just of an ornithin complex, associated with tyrosin, serin, tryptophan, and a-pyrrolidin- carbonic acid. The next group of albumins is made by the nucleo-albumins or phosphoglobulins. They're more technical compared to the people in the very first team in having an unique phosphorized radical in combination with an albuminous complex. They make up many crucial foodstuffs, including the casein of milk, the vitellins of the yolks of birds ‘eggs, the ichthulin of fishes’ eggs, aside from the phytoglobulins or phytovitellins of the leguminous plants. The third class is represented because of the proteids, which are complex albumins, containing an albuminous team united along with other complex radicals. In the nucleoproteids, which are essential constituents of cell-nuclei, we look for nucleinic acid, where the so-called purin or xanthin basics and uric acid tend to be derived. When you look at the hemoglobins we speak to pigment radicals: therefore inside typical color matter of the bloodstream, the hemoglobin, with hematin. The albuminoids, which form the fourth group, in contradistinction to those already mentioned, are particularly constituents of intercellular frameworks and therefore particularly abundant in the skeletal parts of the pet human body. To the group belong the collagens or glutins of fibrous tissue and cartilage, the elastin of flexible tissue, the different skeletons found in the encouraging frameworks for the invertebrates, etc. The past class comprises substances which are albuminous types, but nevertheless possess albuminous personality, like the coagulated albumins and numerous intermediary digestive items, such as the albuminates, albumoses, and peptone.
    • an easy water-soluble protein present in many pet areas and liquids
    • a course of quick, water-soluble proteins which can be coagulated by heat and they are present in egg-white, bloodstream serum, milk, and lots of other animal and plant areas. Also referred to as albumen.
    • A class of monomeric proteins that are soluble in water, and are usually coagulated by heat; they occur in egg-white, milk etc; they work as carrier necessary protein for steroids, essential fatty acids, and thyroid bodily hormones and play a role in stabilizing extracellular liquid volume.
    • A thick, viscous nitrogenous compound, which is the primary and characteristic constituent of white of eggs as well as the serum of blood, and it is found in various other animal substances, both substance and solid, additionally in several flowers. Its dissolvable in water and is coagulated by temperature and by particular chemical reagents.
    • In chem., a substance named from the Latin when it comes to white of an egg, by which it takes place with its purest all-natural state (see albumen).
    • The albumins are highly complex organic bodies which enter prominently into the composition of all animal and vegetable tissues and form the groundwork, so to speak, of every living cell. They are the most important food-stuffs of all classes of animal life, and can be elaborated by the chlorophyl-bearing plants from such simple substances as water, carbon dioxid, and certain nitrates or ammonium salts. All albumins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur in definite proportions which vary but little in the different members of the group: one albumin, which is found in the thyroid, also contains iodine. Other elements are not met with in albumins proper, but are encountered in certain compound albumins, in which an albuminous radical is united with other more or less complex groups. Thus hemoglobin contains iron, hemocyanin copper, and the nucleo-albumins and nucleoproteids phosphorus. All albumins also contain variable amounts of mineral salts in firm combination. Their molecular size is very large. For crystallized egg-albumin Hofmeister established the formula C239H386N58S2O78, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 5,378. The, protamins and histons apparently have the smallest molecules, while the compound albumins are proportionately heavier: the weight of oxyhemoglobin has thus been determined as 14,800. The greater number of the albumins are amorphous. A few, however, can be obtained in crystalline form, such as egg-albumin, serum-albumin, oxyhemoglobin, and certain vegetable albumins, as edestin, etc. The so-called Bence Jones albumin, which has been met with in the urine in certain pathological conditions (multiple myeloma), also belongs to this order. All true albumins are levorotatory, while certain compound albumins (the nucleoproteids) turn the plane of polarization to the right. Osborne has shown that this property, in the case of the nucleoproteids, is very likely wholly referable to the nucleinic acid complex which they contain. All albumins — owing to the great size of the molecule, no doubt — are incapable of diffusing through animal membrane or vegetable parchment. Some members of the group are soluble in water, others only in dilute saline solution, and still others in dilute acids and alkalis. From their solutions they can be precipitated by mineral acids, the salts of the heavy metals, the so-called alkaloidal reagents (as tannic acid, phosphotungstic acid, iodomercuric iodide, etc.), strong alcohol, and certain neutral salts (sodium chlorid, magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate, and notably ammonium sulphate). All albumins further give certain color-reactions, of which the biuret reaction (production of a bluish or reddish violet-color on the addition of very dilute copper-sulphate solution in the presence of an excess of strong caustic alkali) is especially characteristic. The true albumins are all coagulated by heat. As a result they lose their individual characteristics and are then said to be denaturized. After this they can be brought into solution only by means which at the same time will produce integral changes in their composition. From study of the various cleavage-products which result from the albumins on hydrolysis by boiling mineral acids and alkalis, by digestion with the proteolytic ferments, etc., a certain insight is now possible into the complex structure of the albuminous molecule. Thus it appears that various a-amido acids (as leucin, tyrosin, asparaginic acid, glutaminic acid), and the diamido acids (ornithin, lysin, etc.), exist in the albuminous complex in the form of Fischer's polypeptides, which have the general structure represented by the formula NH2.(CH2.CO.NH)n.CH2.-COOH. These in turn are combined with other groups, such as the sulphur-containing cystin complex, the glucosamin-group, etc., to form still more complex radicals, which are further combined with similar groups to even larger complexes, which last in turn are again united with correspondingly large groups to form the complete molecule. Evidence of the correctness of this supposition is furnished by a study of the products of albuminous digestion. Here we find among the primary products of cleavage three complex bodies which individually differ from one another and which in the intact molecule were manifestly in combination. These are the three primary albumoses, termed proto-albumose, heteroalbumose, and glucoalbumose. The first-mentioned on further decomposition yields diamido acids in small amount, much tyrosin, little leucin, no glyeocol, etc.; while the second contains diamido acids in large amount, much leucin, no tyrosin, and the total amount of glycocol of the original substance. Glucoal-bumose in turn contains the entire carbohydrate-group and a larger percentage of oxygen, while the amount of nitrogen and carbon is less than in the two other groups. (See also products of digestion.) The albumins maybe divided into 5 classes, namely the native albumins, the nucleo-albumins, the proteids, the albuminoids, and the derived albumins. Examples of the first group are the serum-albumin and serum-globulin of the blood-plasma, the ovalbumin of white of egg, the lactalbumin of milk, and the myosin and myogen of muscle-plasma. The same group further comprises the glucoalbumins, which are characterized by the special predominance of a carbohydrate-group, and of which the various mucins and mucoids are common representatives; further, the markedly sulphurous ceratins of the skin and related substances (hair, horn, etc.); then the histons and the closely related protamins. These latter represent albumins of simplest structure, and are fairly typical representatives of Fischer's polypeptides. Kossel's salmin thus apparently consists only of an ornithin complex, associated with tyrosin, serin, tryptophan, and a-pyrrolidin- carbonic acid. The second group of albumins is formed by the nucleo-albumins or phosphoglobulins. These are more complex than the members of the first group in having a special phosphorized radical in combination with an albuminous complex. They comprise many important foodstuffs, such as the casein of milk, the vitellins of the yolks of birds ‘eggs, the ichthulin of fishes’ eggs, besides the phytoglobulins or phytovitellins of the leguminous plants. The third class is represented by the proteids, which are complex albumins, containing an albuminous group united with other complex radicals. In the nucleoproteids, which are important constituents of cell-nuclei, we find nucleinic acid, from which the so-called purin or xanthin bases and uric acid are derived. In the hemoglobins we meet with pigment radicals: so in the common coloring matter of the blood, the hemoglobin, with hematin. The albuminoids, which form the fourth group, in contradistinction to those already mentioned, are notably constituents of intercellular structures and thus especially abundant in the skeletal parts of the animal body. To this group belong the collagens or glutins of fibrous tissue and cartilage, the elastin of elastic tissue, the various skeletons found in the supporting structures of the invertebrates, etc. The last class comprises substances which are albuminous derivatives, but still possess albuminous character, such as the coagulated albumins and the various intermediary digestive products, including the albuminates, albumoses, and peptone.
    • an easy water-soluble protein found in numerous pet areas and fluids

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