A city of western Italy on the Arno River near the Tyrrhenian Sea. A significant Etruscan town, it progressed into a robust maritime republic in 9th to 11th centuries but had been crushed by Genoa in 1284. Florence managed the city from 1406 to 1509. The campanile of the cathedral, built 1174-c. 1350, may be the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. Population: 87,200.