- An ancient kingdom of northwest Mesopotamia expanding through the bend into the Euphrates River nearly towards Tigris River. Established most likely by Aryans, the kingdom had been established c. 1475 B.C. and lasted until c. 1275, when it fell to the Hittites.
- Hurrian kingdom in north Mesopotamia from ca. 1500 BCE, on level of their power, during 14th century BC, encompassing what's these days southeastern chicken, northern Syria and northern Iraq.