- Formerly also Kazakh Soviet Socialist RepublicKazakhstan A country of west-central Asia south of Russia and northeast associated with Caspian Sea. The original Turkic inhabitants were inundated because of the Mongols into the 13th century and ruled by numerous khanates until the Russian conquest of 1730 to 1853. The region became an autonomous republic regarding the USSR in 1920 and had been a constituent republic from 1936 to 1991, when it gained its self-reliance. Astana may be the capital and Almaty the biggest city. Population: 15,300,000.
- A country in Central Asia. Official title: Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respublikasy).
- a landlocked republic towards the south of Russia and to the northeast for the Caspian water; the initial Turkic-speaking residents were overrun by Mongols within the 13th century; an Asian soviet from 1936 to 1991