A suffix happening in lots of English adjectives, created, most of them in current clinical usage, from Latin or Middle Latin adjectives in -osus, as bellicose, globose, jocose, morose, otiose, pilose, verbose, etc. In seventeenth century numerous adjectives before that time and since spelled with -ous were often spelled with -ose, most likely not always with an alternative pronunciation, as ambitiose, gloriose, pompose, etc. Abstract nouns in -ity from adjectives in -ose or -ous use the kind -osity, as globosity, jocosity, pomposity, etc.
A suffix designating members of the number of sugars, as glucose, lactose, maltose, etc.
A suffix showing your compound is a primary decomposition-product of a proteid, as albumose, etc.